As a parent, you get to decide the first and last name that your child will have. You also get to choose the name you intend for them to regularly use. However, Québec has certain rules which you must follow.
Choosing a first name
You can choose one or several first names (“first names” includes middle names), but your child cannot have more than four first names.
You must also specify in the declaration of birth the name you intend for your child to regularly use. This will be their “usual given name”.
If one of the first names is a compound name (a name joined by a hyphen), you must insert a hyphen between the two names. If not, the two names will be considered two distinct names.
Did you know?
One of the parent’s family names can be used as one of the child’s first names. In addition, an initial of one of the parent’s family names can be used as one of the child’s first names.
In case of disagreement
If you and the other parent cannot agree on a name to give your child, the Directeur de l’état civil will intervene. It will assign two or four first names to the child, one chosen by each of the parents.
If you cannot agree on your child’s usual given name, the Directeur de l’état civil will assign a usual given name among one of the child’s first names.
Choosing a family name
Your child’s family name must respect certain rules:
- The child can adopt either of the parents’ names, or a composite of the two names joined by a hyphen.
- When both parents have composite family names, you must choose a name that contains only two parts.
- A family name cannot include an initial (e.g.: B-Roy), because this kind of name does not meet the requirements of the Civil Code of Québec. The family names of the parents must be written in full so that the child’s family name fully reflects the family relationship to either of the parents, or both.
- Your newborn’s family name may differ from the family names of your other children. This means that children from the same parents can have different family names.
- The child’s family name cannot be composed of one of the parent’s first names.
Can the Directeur de l’état civil ask us to change the first or family names we give our child?
Yes. If you gave your child any name that is unusual or that might cause your child to be ridiculed or not taken seriously, the Directeur might ask you to choose a less controversial name.
If you refuse to change the chosen name(s), the matter could wind up in court where a judge will make a final decision.